The Parties to the conflict shall take the necessary measures to
ensure that children under fifteen, who are orphaned or are separated
from their families as a result of the war, are not left to their
own resources, and that their maintenance, the exercise of their
religion and their education are facilitated in all circumstances.
Their education shall, as far as possible, be entrusted to persons
of a similar cultural tradition.
The Parties to the conflict shall facilitate
the reception of such children in a neutral country for the duration
of the conflict with the consent of the Protecting Power, if any,
and under due safeguards for the observance of the principles stated
in the first paragraph.
They shall, furthermore, endeavour to arrange
for all children under twelve to be identified by the wearing of
identity discs, or by some other means.
All persons in the territory of a Party to the conflict, or in a
territory occupied by it, shall be enabled to give news of a strictly
personal nature to members of their families, wherever they may
be, and to receive news from them. This correspondence shall be
forwarded speedily and without undue delay.
If, as a result of circumstances, it becomes
difficult or impossible to exchange family correspondence by the
ordinary post, the Parties to the conflict concerned shall apply
to a neutral intermediary, such as the Central Agency provided for
in Article 140, and shall decide in consultation with it how to
ensure the fulfilment of their obligations under the best possible
conditions, in particular with the cooperation of the National Red
Cross (Red Crescent, Red Lion and Sun) Societies.
If the Parties to the conflict deem it necessary
to restrict family correspondence, such restrictions shall be confined
to the compulsory use of standard forms containing twenty-five freely
chosen words, and to the limitation of the number of these forms
despatched to one each month.
Each Party to the conflict shall facilitate enquiries made by members
of families dispersed owing to the war, with the object of renewing
contact with one another and of meeting, if possible. It shall encourage,
in particular, the work of organizations engaged on this task provided
they are acceptable to it and conform to its security regulations.
Status and Treatment of Protected Persons
Section I. Provisions common to the territories
of the parties to the conflict and to occupied territories
Protected persons are entitled, in all circumstances, to respect
for their persons, their honour, their family rights, their religious
convictions and practices, and their manners and customs. They shall
at all times be humanely treated, and shall be protected especially
against all acts of violence or threats thereof and against insults
and public curiosity.
Women shall be especially protected against
any attack on their honour, in particular against rape, enforced
prostitutiOn, or any form of indecent assault.
Without prejudice to the provisions relating
to their state of health, age and sex, all protected persons shall
be treated with the same consideration by the Party to the conflict
in whose power they are, without any adverse distinction based,
in particular, on race, religion or political opinion.
However, the Parties to the conflict may take
such measures of control and security in regard to protected persons
as may be necessary as a result of the war.
The presence of a protected person may not be used to render certain
points or areas immune from military operations.
The Party to the conflict in whose hands protected persons may be,
is responsible for the treatment accorded to them by its agents,
irrespective of any individual responsibility which may be incurred.
Protected persons shall have every facility for making application
to the Protecting Powers, the International Committee of the Red
Cross, the National Red Cross (Red Crescent, Red Lion and Sun) Society
of the country where they may be, as well as to any organization
that might assist them.
These several organizations shall be granted
all facilities for that purpose by the authorities, within the bounds
set by military or security considerations.
Apart from the visits of the delegates of
the Protecting Powers and of the International Committee of the
Red Cross, provided for by Article 143, the Detaining or Occupying
Powers shall facilitate, as much as possible, visits to protected
persons by the representatives of other organizations whose object
is to give spiritual aid or material relief to such persons.
No physical or moral coercion shall be exercised against protected
persons, in particular to obtain information from them or from third
The High Contracting Parties specifically agree that
each of them is prohibited from taking any measure of such a character
as to cause the physical suffering or extermination of protected
persons in their hands. This prohibition applies not only to murder,
torture, corporal punishments, mutilation and medical or scientific
experiments not necessitated by the medical treatment of a protected
person, but also to any other measures of brutality whether applied
by civilian or military agents.
No protected person may be punished for an offence he
or she has not personally committed. Collective penalties and likewise
all measures of intimidation or of terrorism are prohibited.
Pillage is prohibited.
Reprisals against protected persons
and their property are prohibited.
The taking of hostages is prohibited.
Section II. Aliens in the territory of a party to
All protected persons who may desire to leave the territory at the
outset of, or during a conflict, shall be entitled to do so, unless
their departure is contrary to the national interests of the State.
The applications of such persons to leave shall be decided in accordance
with regularly established procedures and the decision shall be
taken as rapidly as possible. Those persons permitted to leave may
provide themselves with the necessary funds for their journey and
take with them a reasonable amount of their effects and Articles
of personal use.
If any such person is refused permission to
leave the territory, he shall be entitled to have refusal reconsidered,
as soon as possible by an appropriate court or administrative board
designated by the Detaining Power for that purpose.
Upon request, representatives of the Protecting
Power shall, unless reasons of security prevent it, or the persons
concerned object, be furnished with the reasons for refusal of any
request for permission to leave the territory and be given, as expeditiously
as possible, the names of all persons who have been denied permission